Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice / Roy Killen. View the summary of this work. Bookmark: viastopenemtlin.tk Instructor resources. • Roy Killen (book author) for the PowerPoint presentations. • Christine McGunnigle (University of Notre Dame) for the early childhood. Effective Teaching Strategies by Roy Killen, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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Killen Teaching Strategies - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or In: Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice / Roy Killen. Strategies for Effective viastopenemtlin.tk - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book Resources: Some suggested readings: Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R. T., Holubec, E.J., and Roy, P. (). Killen Teaching Strategies. Get this from a library! Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice. [Roy Killen] -- This book provides a practical overview of nine common.
Check the instructional objectives to be sure that they are sequenced according to the original outline. Reflective planning teaching, and evaluation: K Revise the Written revised lesson plans based on responses to lesson plans the following questions. Revision is needed for "no" responses: 1. Are opportunities provided to encourage learning at more than one cognitive or performance level?
Are new ideas and concepts related to past and future learning? Will the purpose and importance of topics and activities be communicated to the students? Are potential areas or points of difficulty emphasized? Are essential elements of knowledge emphasized? Is the presentation of the lesson's content structured to encourage the development of thinking-skills?
Share your revisions with the principal, mentor, or a colleague. As you review each of the lesson objectives, ask yourself: 1. What teaching methods do I plan to implement to achieve each objective? What learning tasks will the students complete to achieve each objective?
Write down the teaching method or learning task for each objective. Ask the principal, mentor, or peer teacher to provide feedback. After completing this assignment, proceed to Strategy 2.
Resources: Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Strategy 2: After reviewing the referenced learning activities that you developed in Strategy 1, plan a sequence for implementing the learning tasks and teaching methods. Prepare a written rationale for the planned five -day sequence. Do the activities seem to be logically sequenced? Do subsequent activities build on knowledge gained in previous activities?
Are a variety of activities planned? Evidence of Completion: Completed fiveday sequence and rationale Resources: Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 3: Successful lesson planning requires that teachers, prior to the beginning of the lesson, think about what is required for planned activities. While a proficient teacher may not necessarily need to write down in the lesson plan all of the details of how an activity will be conducted, the proficient teacher has a mental plan for the activity.
Develop capacity for mentally thinking through how a learning activity will be conducted. Review the sequence of learning activities that were developed in Strategy 2 or in another lesson plan. Separate the complex teaching methods and learning tasks into component parts or specific steps as needed. For example, the activity "map reading activity using gloves and workbook page 32" might be broken down into the following steps: 1. Put the directions for the activity on the blackboard before class begins.
Review the directions for the activity with the whole class. Break students into small groups. Group facilitators get globes from the back table or storage cabinet. Groups cooperatively complete page Allow 20 minutes. Group facilitator collects workbook pages to be turned in. The teacher leads the whole class in a de-briefing activity 5 minutes. After the complex activities have been broken into specific steps, the teacher should review the instructional objectives. Will the students be able to demonstrate the stated learner outcomes after the outcomes have been completed?
Identifies and plans for individual differences Evidence of Completion: Written summary of individual differences in a class profile Strategy 1: Compile a class list in which the students are grouped based on academic performance levels i. Several sources of data might be used as a basis for groupings: standardized test scores, teacher observations, cumulative files, exams, and written work.
Additional information might be obtained by administering a short pretest or questionnaire to assess students' previous experiences and knowledge of the topics that will be covered during the planned unit. Record other individual differences that you noticed during recent lessons, including those dealing with reading proficiency, developmental levels, and student needs.
After identifying these individual differences, summarize the findings and incorporate them in a class profile. Write several learning objectives that are appropriate for the majority of the students in your class. Then consider what objectives need to be added or adapted to accommodate the more proficient students. Similarly, add or modify the objectives to accommodate the less proficient students. After writing these learning objectives, review each student's name on the class listing to ensure that the objectives that you constructed accommodate the range of students in your class.
The center should include a variety of learning tasks for students of average, above average, and below average ability levels. Learning centers for child-centered classrooms. Finkelstein, J. Children in American history. Instructor, pp. Zaidel, L. The theme's the thing. Learning, pp. Ovoian, G. Can you dig it? Social Studies Review, pp.
Wait, S. Center your reading instruction. Activities should accommodate students who finish early, who need extra help, or who require a challenge. Examples include activities involving computer assisted instruction, folder games, creative and differentiated worksheets, manipulatives, hands-on activities, research, and logic games.
Circles of learning. Hilke, E. Cooperative learning. Fastback Mosston, M. Teaching physical education 3rd ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing. Slavin, R. Cooperative learning: Student teams. Student team learning: A practical guide to cooperative learning 3rd ed. Identifies materials, other than standard classroom materials, as needed for lesson Strategy 1: Successful teachers identify the materials needed for lessons as they write their lesson plans. Make a list of the aids and materials that you want to use for a one-week unit.
Specify the order in which they will be used relative to the whole unit, and within each lesson. Summarize how this sequence will enhance the mastery of the instructional objectives. What materials on your list are available in your classroom?
In your school? In your district's media center? How will you obtain these aids and materials? Ask a principal or peer teacher provide suggestions. Use their feedback to make revisions. Evidence of Completion: Revised sequential list of aids and materials. Resources: Principal, mentor, or colleague. Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 2: Supplemental materials that are needed for classroom activities should be identified in the lesson plan.
Prepare a variety of activities, handouts, and worksheets that require minimal teacher directions for students who complete classwork early during lessons of an upcoming unit. Evidence of Completion: Supplemental materials for lessons within the unit, lesson plans Resources: None Strategy 3: Teachers should identify in the lesson plan those aids and materials required for special-needs students.
List students in your class who have impairments i.
Evidence of Completion: Floor plan arrangement, description of modifications Resources: School records, teacher-constructed class profiles See Strategies for Attribute IA3. Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 4: Teachers who use teaching strategies that involve differentiated grouping should identify in the lesson plans the aids and materials that will be needed for each group. See Strategies listed for Attribute IA3.
For any lesson that uses a grouping strategy, describe in the lesson plan the aids and materials appropriate for each ability group. Standard aids and materials can be differentiated by providing additional or more challenging tasks to the higher ability students or by specifying varying performance expectations.
Seek suggestions and feedback from a colleague or principal. Evidence of Completion: Class list, lesson plan with both differentiated aids and materials specified Resources: Principal, mentor, or colleague Strategy 5: Compile a mater list of the instructional aids and materials available to your.
Include personal resources, other classroom teachers, library or media center, community resources, and students. Be sure to include supplemental aids and materials.
Evidence of Completion: List of available aids and materials in the lesson plan Resources: Principal, mentor, or colleague List of Aids and Materials Appendix O Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 6: Successful teachers utilize knowledge of their students to select the best types of aids and materials for instruction. Conduct a student inventory to determine the cultural, economic, linguistic, personal, and social differences among your students.
Use this information to develop and select materials and aids for instruction. Incorporate these aids and materials into your lesson plans.
For example, to motivate students who like sports, a teacher might include the use of sports stories to introduce vocabulary words. Evidence of Completion: Results of student interest inventory, lesson plans Resources: Some suggested reading: Partridge, M. Special opportunities: Students as resource people. Social Education, 53 3 , Example of a Student Inventory Appendix I Strategy 7: The type of learning to take place influences the selection of appropriate aids and materials.
Analyze the upcoming instructional unit. Identify the objectives that encourage students to comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information rather than recall simple facts and knowledge.
What aids and materials were you planning to use for the knowledge level objectives? What aids and materials will be used for the higherorder objectives? Summarize your use of aids and materials for different types of learning. Share your summary with the principal or colleague.
Make a list of what is available in your school or district. Determine what is available for use in your classroom. Write a lesson plan that uses computerized instructional technology. Share it with your principal.
Microcomputers and the classroom teacher. Fastback Collis, B. Computers, curriculum, and whole-class instruction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Waiting until the end of the chapter or until the end of the unit to assess students' progress often means finding out that there is a considerable gap between what the teacher thought was taught and what the teacher wants the students to know. Effective teachers assess students progress continuously so that they can adjust their teaching and ensure that students are learning.
Select and use at least one of the Daily Evaluation Strategies for each lesson.
How much did students actually know? Adjust your teaching so that students have learned the desired concepts and skills before moving to the next lesson. Resources: Daily Evaluation Strategies Appendix P Principal Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 2: In planning for student evaluation, the relative importance of what is being learned guides the teacher in selecting appropriate methods for evaluation.
Make a list of all your objectives for a unit. Assign a percent weight to each objective based on its relative importance in the unit. For example: Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 And so on. Evidence of Completion: Lesson plans with questions Strategy 3: Oral and written questioning can be an effective method of daily evaluation.
Include for each day in a lesson plan questions that will measure that day's objectives. These questions can be given for homework or used for brainstorming. They can be answered by the students as a written assignment and turned in during class, etc.
Resources: None Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 4: Ask a colleague to look at your daily questions and help you determine whether the questions measure your objectives.
Evidence of Completion: Written summary of colleague's analysis of questions Evidence of Completion: List of most appropriate questions Resources: Colleague Strategy 5: Teachers can use student input to verify that students have achieved stated outcomes. In this way, students become more involved in their own evaluation.
For example, have students make up "test" questions, answer them, and turn them in as part of a class or homework assignment. Select the most appropriate questions and discuss them with the class: e. Is this a good question? What do we need to know to answer this question? If you can answer these questions, will you have met the objectives for yesterday? Resources: None Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 6: Important components of the teaching process are knowing when to evaluate and what type of evaluation is most appropriate.
Read an appropriate resource that summarizes the differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation. After your reading, review some previous unit plans. What formative evaluation procedures did you use? What summative evaluation procedures did you use? Have you used formative and summative procedures appropriately? Share your findings with the principal, mentor, or colleague. The first days of school. Sunnyvale, CA: Wong Publications. Cangelosi, J. Evaluating classroom instruction.
New York: Longman. Strategy 7: Enlist the aid of students in evaluating learner outcomes. Design and hone out charts for students to use to keep daily records of progress. Each day the student marks the number of problems solved correctly, words spelled correctly, books read, assignment completed, etc.
Each week send these evaluations home for the parents' signatures. Keep portfolios folders containing samples of student work along with their own comments and interpretations. Send portfolios home for parents to sign and return. Portolio assessment: Getting started. New York: Scholastic. Grady, E.
The portfolio approach to assessment. A successful IEP process will enlist the active participation of parents and the meaningful participation of each member of a student's team. Review an IEP that you have recently written. Ask yourself the following questions and ascertain if the IEP meets these standards: 1. Does the IEP reflect parent concerns and priorities? Does the IEP reflect the student's interests? Is the IEP chronologically ageappropriate?
Does the IEP indicate the settings and situations in which skills will be taught? Does the IEP include objectives that involve the participation of nondisabled peers? Does the IEP clearly state the accomplishments expected of the student, no matter how severely disabled? Does the IEP contain language that is understandable and jargon-free?
Rewrite any parts of the IEP that do not meet these standards. Write the next IEP, using the survey results. Highlight the sections of the IEP that were influenced by the survey results, and share with your principal. When using the ecological inventory, you can write the outcome behavior as the goal; the steps the student is unable to perform can be written as the shortterm objectives.
Complete an ecological inventory for a desired student outcome. Did the inventory force you to think of observable, measurable behaviors? Use the inventory to write an IEP. All annual goals must be written in measurable terms.
Share the annual goals that you have written with your principal or a peer teacher. Are the goals clearly stated? Are they measurable? Rewrite any that are not clear or measurable. Evidence of Completion: Written goals Resources: Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Strategy 5: Short-term objectives must contain the following objectives.
A statement identifies what the student is to do. The behavior must be verifiable, observable, and measurable. A statement identifies the circumstances under which the behavior is to occur.
A statement defines how well the student is to perform the learned behavior proficiency or level of mastery. Write a goal and three short-term objectives. Share these with your principal, mentor, or a peer teacher. Do they contain the components listed above? The teacher maintains an environment conducive to learning.
Complete an equipment checklist to accompany your lesson plan. Resources: None Thurs Fri. Develop an alternative activity for a lesson that can be used as a backup activity.
Evidence of Completion: Alternative activity noted on lesson plan Resources: None Performance Domain II: Management Strategy 4: Establish a system for sharing books or materials when they are in short supply. For example, assign students to a group such as a cooperative learning group or pair students in learning teams. This list would be compiled throughout the day and completed at days end. Evidence of Completion: Written examples of the To Do List Resources: None Strategy 6: Evaluate the current arrangement of your classroom in terms of safety and practicality.
Is it arranged in such a way that students can function during teaching and learning? Diagram two or three alternative arrangements and note pros and cons for each in terms of safety and practicality. Evidence of Completion: Written evaluation of current classroom arrangement, diagrams of alternative arrangements with written comments Resources: Some suggested reading: Cangelosi, J. Cooperation in the classroom: Students and teachers working together 2nd ed.
Relocate any materials and equipment that are potentially dangerous to students. Evidence of Completion: Completed safety checklist Resources: None Performance Domain II: Management Strategy 8: Utilizing the classroom space to facilitate learning includes using the walls, bulletin boards, and other display space. Scan magazines, attend in-service workshops, or visit other classrooms for ideas for the file.
Evidence of Completion: Written criteria for evaluating displays, students displays Resources: Assorted paper, markers, other art supplies Strategy 9: Involve students in creating content-related classroom displays. Have students come up with ideas and make the materials for the displays. Develop a list of criteria to evaluate the displays. Evidence of Completion: Written criteria for evaluating displays, students displays Resources: Assorted paper, markers, other art supplies Strategy Invite the principal or a peer teacher to look at displays in your classroom and provide feedback.
Evidence of Completion: Written summary of feedback from principal or peer teacher Resources: Principal or peer teacher Strategy Have a display area for students work. Have something from each student displayed at all times. Are the traffic patterns arranged in a way to allow for efficient movement of the teacher and students? In group work, are group sizes suitable for the physical arrangement?
Which areas of the classroom are not used for learning activities? Are arrangements made for students with special needs such as physical handicaps? Diagram two or three alternative arrangements and note the pros and cons for each arrangement. Evidence of Completion: Written evaluation of current classroom arrangement and diagrams of alternative arrangements with comments Resources: Some suggested reading: Cangelosi, J.
Strategy Visit the classrooms of two peer teachers and diagram the room arrangements. Then meet with the peer teachers to discuss possibilities for altering the arrangement of your classroom. Evidence of Completion: Diagram of other classrooms and notes from discussion with peer teachers Resources: Peer teachers Performance Domain II: Management Strategy Arrange your classroom in a different manner for at least one week. At the end of the week, note the pros and cons for leaving the classroom arranged in this manner, for returning it to the original arrangement, or for modifying the new arrangement.
Evidence of Completion: Written evaluations of classroom arrangements Resources: Some suggested reading: Cangelosi, J. Summarize your reading and apply one new idea to your classroom. Evidence of Completion: Written summary of reading, description of new idea Resources: Some suggested readings: Shenkle, A.
Greenman, J. Strategy 1: There are many indicators of a positive classroom climate. Courtesy, respect, warmth, and friendliness among students and teacher are some of these indicators. Promotes a positive learning climate Evidence of Completion: List of ways the teacher might address the indPicators Resources: Peer teachers Some suggested readings: Doescher, S.
Eccles, J. Ames and R. Ames Eds. New York: Academic Press. Raffini, J. Winners without losers: Structures and strategies for increasing student motivation to learn. Performance Domain II: Management Strategy 2: The teacher serves as a powerful role model for demonstrating prosocial behaviors.
Tape record several lessons over the course of a week. The types of instructional materials you use. Each student will have different expectations about what will or should happen in your classes. Some students might, for example, expect you towrite detailed notes on the board; others might expect you togive detailed explanations and put just a summary on the board.
You will also have certain expectations about how students should respond to the way you teach. For example, you might expect students todevelop their own summaries of the Effective teaching strategies information you present. It is likely that your preferred teac. When your expectations or preferences don't match those of the students, there may be a problem.
If some students are constantly required towork outside their preferred learning style they will quickly lose motivation. You need to be aware of this and try tofind ways of aligning your expectations with a ose of the students. This will inevitably mean using a variety of teaching techniques. If you use appropriate variety in your teaching, this can expand students' views of what they are learning and how they can learn, challenging themto think in new ways.
Task orientation In any formof instruction, both the teacher and the learners should have a clear focus on the outcomes that students are trying to achieve. The students' task should be to achieve these outcomes toa high standard in a reasonable time. The teacher's task is toassist learners tosystematically work towards achieving the outcomes. For this tohappen through direct instruction, there must be a well-organised and structured learning environment in which the teacher is concerned with: Helping students toachieve specific learning outcomes to:learly stated standards.
Providing students with the opportunity to learn by preser ting relevant information. Asking questions to prompt student thinking and check their understanding.
Encouraging students tothink independently. Reminding students of what they are trying to achieve. Encouraging and rewarding students' efforts.
Successful task orientation starts with effective classroommanagement you have to organise and manage the learning environment sothat it is easy for all students tofocus on learning. Then you have to ensure that the interactions between you and the students are focused on intellectual content and achievement of predefined goals -- not simply control. Once you establish the basic organisational structure that allows you and the students to be task-oriented, it will be easier for you to monitor t Task orientation can be considered as the key feature of direct instruction because it places an emphasis on clear goal setting, active teaching, close monitc ring of student progress and teacher responsibility for student learning all factors that R Dsenshine and Spady emphasise as important for student achievement.
Task orientation is essential for the engagement, student self-regulation, higher-order thinking and deep understanding elements of Quality Teaching.
Chapter 5 Using direct ins fiction as a teaching strategy Engagement in learning Although task orientation by the teacher provides the opportunity for students to learn, it does not guarantee that the students will be engaged in learning. To be engaged, students must be actively thinking about, working with, or using the ideas and information that the teacher has presented they must be trying to understand.
The importance of student engagement in learning is illustrated well in the review of research on teacher behaviour and student achievement by Brophy and Good They claimed that overriding all findings in their review was the fact that academic learning is influenced by the amount of time students spend engaged in appropriate academic tasks.
This engagement is sometimes referred to as academic learning time Huitt, Engagement, and the related factors of concentration and persistence, were found by Hattie to have a strong influence on student learning.
One way tomaximise student engagement is tohave a systemof class rules that allows students toattend topersonal and procedural matters without the need toseek the teacher's permission, thus encouraging students to remain engaged in learning for the maximum possible time.
Students should know what to do if, say, they finish an exercise before the rest of the class. Tomaintain engagement it is important for you tomonitor the seatwork of students who are working independently, and to communicate to themthat you are aware of their progress. Once you have created an environment that will encourage students tobe engaged, you then have touse instructional strategies that will enhance this engagement.
Your basic task is toengage students in learning activities that challenge themtoconstruct understanding. This can be achieved through problemsolving, through encouraging students to make choices and take the initiative in their learning, by challenging students to search for underlying causes, explain their thinking and justify a position and by making all learning relevant.
There is a simple basic rule: If you want students to engage in learning, you must tell themwhat you expect themto do and you must make it easy and interesting for themto doit. When students know what the goals are, and when they see these goals as attainable and useful, they will want to engage in learning. If the students do not know what they are supposed tobe learning, or why it is important, or they see the goals as unattainable or unimportant, you cannot expect themto be enthusiastic and engaged.
Learner success When students engage in learning tasks, they may experience high success understand the content and make only occasional careless errors , moderate success partially understand the content and make some substantive errors or low success not understand the task at all. Several studies e. When students believe that they can learn because of earlier learning successes it allows teachers tochallenge themwith higher-level tasks one of the key indicators of effective teaching identified by Hattie As well as producing mastery of the lesson content, moderate-to-high success rates on learning tasks provide opportunities for students toapply their learned knowledge in other classroomactivities, such as answering questions and solving problems.
In this way, success encourages further engagement in learning.
These ideas are consistent with one of the basic principles of outcomes-based education success leads to further success Spady, As the Quality Teaching model emphasises, it is difficult for :Indents tobe successful if the criteria for success are not explicit. You can dothis by helping learners toreflect on the processes that led totheir success. If students understand why they were succe ssful in learning, they will be more likely to be successful in the future, even if they choo ie to use a different approach tolearning.
Behaviours that s upport the key as pects of effective teaching The above summary suggests that to be an effective teacher you need the knowledge and skill topresent information clearly, using a variety of strateg. Fromthis, it she uld be apparent that effective teaching is the result of patterns of teacher behaviours rather than isolated behaviours, and that the aspects of effective teaching briefly described above Jonot provide a total picture of teacher effectiveness.
The literature contains evidence of n any other teacher behaviours that, in various circumstances, have been shown to contripute to learner achievement: and hence teacher effectiveness.
They are sometimes referred toas enabling behaviours or supporting behaviours because they enable you toincorporate effective teaching practices intoyour lessons. Some enabling behaviours with strong research support are use of student ideas, structuring, questioning, probing and enthusiasm. Using students' ideas One of the best ways tomaintain students' interest is toinvolve themactively in the lesson and you can dothis during direct instruction by using the stu :lents' ideas as an integral part of your lesson.
Flanders suggests that students' ideas can be used in five basic ways: acknouvledging repeating students' main statements , nio4cying rephrasing a student's idea in the teacher's words , applying using the student's idea to tike the next step in solving a Chapter 5 Using direct in truction as a teaching strategy problem , comparing showing similarities and differences in the ideas of several students and summarising using what was said by students torevise key points.
Although there does not appear tobe any strong evidence that using these strategies will directly enhance student achievement, they do appear to promote learning by increasing students' engagement in the learning process Emmer et al. Brophy makes similar claims and Borich suggests that use of students' ideas can increase the clarity and variety of a lesson, and encourage student engagement in learning. Your personal experience probably tells you that learners are encouraged when their ideas are valued.
The most important reason for using students' ideas is that it enables you to build explicitly on the students' prior knowledge. The process of soliciting ideas fromstudents can give you insight intothe attitudes, understandings and misconceptions that they bring tothe learning episode vital information that you need tohelp themlearn.
Structuring You should not expect learners to be able to make sense of new information unless it is organised and presented in ways that make it easy tounderstand. Imagine how difficult it would be tounderstand the information in this book if it were not divided intochapters and if there were noheadings or subheadings!
This organisation is referred toas structuring. Good lesson structuring starts with a well-planned introduction something that will grab the learners' attention and spark their curiosity. Four of the common ways of doing this are: 1.
Start the lesson with a question toprompt learners tothink about a particular issue. Provide a brief overview of where the lesson will take learners to help themdevelop a framework for the lesson.
Use an advance organiser tocreate a general context intowhich more specific information can be integrated. Simply tell the learners what outcomes they will be achieving in the lesson sothat they have clear goals for their learning.